There are three acknowledged available sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell therapy types, autologous harvesting requires the least chance.
Adult stem cells are often utilised in various health care therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with qualities steady with cells of various tissues such as muscle groups or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells created by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for potential therapies. Analysis into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Until at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
Stem cells are cells with the likely to produce into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a restore program for the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.
Stem cells are different from other cells in the body in three techniques:
- They can divide and renew themselves over a prolonged time
- They are unspecialized, so they can’t do distinct functions in the body
- They have the likely to grow to be specialized cells, such as muscle cells, blood cells, and brain cells
Physicians and scientists are thrilled about stem cells since they could support in many different areas of wellness and health care investigation. Studying stem cells might support make clear how serious conditions such as birth defects and cancer come about. Stem cells might a single day be utilised to make cells and tissues for therapy of many diseases. Examples consist of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, spinal cord injury, heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis.
How can stem cells treat disease?
When most men and women think about about stem cells treating disease they think of a stem cell transplant.
In a stem cell transplant, embryonic stem cells are 1st specialized into the needed adult cell kind. Then, individuals mature cells exchange tissue that is broken by disease or injury. This kind of treatment could be utilised to:
- exchange neurons broken by spinal cord injury, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or other neurological problems
- produce insulin that could treat men and women with diabetes and heart muscle cells that could restore harm after a heart attack or
- exchange nearly any tissue or organ that is injured or diseased.
But embryonic stem cell-based therapies can do a lot more.
- Studying how stem cells produce into heart muscle cells could offer clues about how we could induce heart muscle to restore itself after a heart attack.
- The cells could be utilised to review disease, identify new medication, or screen medication for toxic side effects.
Any of these would have a important effect on human wellness with no transplanting a single cell.
In concept, there’s no limit to the types of diseases that could be handled with stem cell investigation. Offered that researchers might be in a position to review all cell types by means of embryonic stem cells, they have the likely to make breakthroughs in any disease.
CIRM has produced disease pages for many of the major diseases being targeted by stem cell scientists. You can find individuals disease pages right here.
You can also kind our comprehensive record of CIRM awards to see what we have funded in different disease areas.